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Learning Dojo: Dojo Remote Scripting

Native Remote Scripting
There are three well-known methods to implement native remote scripting:

  • Using an XMLHttpRequest(XHR) object
  • Dynamically loading an iframe element
  • Dynamically loading a script element



XHR (XmlHttpRequest)

XHR is easy to use naively but hard to use correctly. Some of its many weirdisms include the following:

  • An unfamiliar syntax. Many developers simply copied and pasted XHR code snippets but had no idea what the code was doing. That makes debugging... ehhhh, not so fun.
  • Poor handling of content types. Though XHR is supposed to speak XML fluently, you colud hand back valid XML from the server and still get a head-scratching " Not valid XML" message from XHR.
  • No help in creating the parameter string. You had to do all the URL encoding yourself, or perhaps you didn't do it at all.. and the first & in a textbox broke your application.
Dojo's remote scripting facilities enable a client-side script to communicate with a server without a page reload. There are threee Dojo techniques for service connections:
  • dojo.data is an API specification like JDBC or ODBC. A dojo.data driver implements this specification and responds to requests from your data-enabled widgets or JavaScript code. 
  • The dojo.io.script method access with Padding(JSONP) services in other domains. XHM must follow the same origin rule you can call only those services housed on the same server as the outer page. 
  • The dojo.xhrGet, dojo.xhrPost, dojo.rawXhrPost, dojo.xhrPut, dojo.rawXhrPut, dojo.xhrDelete, and dojo.xhr methods are the lowest-level remote scripting services. These methods, collectively called dojo.xhr*, don't provide the common API layer and translation services that dojo.data doese. They also require a server-side proxy to call services outside your domain. But dojo.xhr* works without writing a compatible dojo.data driver, and they can use data in any format. The are best for off-site services that don't support JSONP.
Generally, dojo.data is the most sophisticated of the three. It's drivers are bilt on the dojo.io.script and dojo.xhr* methods

For example:
Caling dojo.xhr*

function example()
{
dojo.xhrGet( {
    url: "demo/id1",
    load: function(response){ alert(response"},
    error: function(error) { alert(error.message); }
});
}

load: the function to call on succcessful completion of the request.
And we relied upon default values for these items:

  • handleAs(a string): how to prepocess the response; defaults to handle as "text", which implies no preprocessing is executed on the response.
  • sync ( a boolean): Sends the XHR synchronously or not: defaults to send asynchronously
  • preventCache (a boolean): prevents cached resources from being returned : defaults to false

It is also possible to specify one function to handle both success and failure condition.

function example2(){
dojo.xhrGet({
url: "demo/id1" ,
handle: function(response){
if (response instanceof Error) {
//failed...
alert("failed: " + response.message);
}
else {
//success...
alert('succeeded: "' + response + '"' );
}
}
});
}

or

function example4(){
 //get some variables that we'll use in the handler function...
 var targetNode= dojo.byId("result" );

 //make a handler closed on the variables we made...
 function handler2(response){
 var error= response instanceof Error;
 var responseText= error ? response.message : response;
 targetNode.innerHTML= responseText.replace(/</g, "&lt;" );
 dojo.toggleClass(targetNode, "error" , error);

//note: NOT dumping anything...
dojo.byId("objects" ).innerHTML= "" ;
}

//make the XHR call...
dojo.xhrGet({
url: "demo/id1" ,
handle: handler2
 });
}


Or using JSON:

function handler3(response, ioArgs){
 var error= response instanceof Error;
 var responseText= error ? response.message : ioArgs.xhr.responseText;
 var resultNode= dojo.byId("result" );
 resultNode.innerHTML= responseText.replace(/</g, "&lt;" );
 dojo.toggleClass(resultNode, "error" , error);
 dojo.byId("objects" ).innerHTML=  dumpObject({response: response});
 }

 function example(){
 dojo.xhrGet({
 url: "demo/id2" ,
 handleAs: "json" ,
 handle: handler3
 });
 }




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